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BBC隨身英語:為什么我們喜歡不同的口味?

wjrxm 于2019-11-12發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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為什么有些人喜歡某些口味,而有些人卻受不了?名廚赫斯頓和神經學家查爾斯·朱克分析:口味偏好根植于記憶、基因和用餐的環境中,但也會隨著時間改變。
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Why do we like different tastes?

為什么我們喜歡不同的口味?

What's your favourite flavour? Maybe you like your grub nice and spicy? Perhaps you have a sweet tooth? Or are you partial to a salty, savoury snack?

你最喜歡的口味是什么?美味辛辣的食物?偏好吃甜食?亦或是口味偏咸?

By now you're probably imagining something delicious, but take a moment to ponder this: why do some people adore certain flavours while others can't stand them? For example, oysters. They turn my stomach, but some spend lavishly on the slippery shellfish.

現在你可能正想象著好吃的東西,但花點時間想想這個問題:為什么某些人喜歡的某種口味,而另一些人卻對此無法忍受呢?比如說牡蠣會讓我反胃,但有些人卻花大價錢去吃。

According to celebrity chef Heston Blumenthal, our taste preferences are strongly linked to our memories. Certain flavours might bring back the sounds and smells of a seaside holiday, or an ice-cream might trigger memories of enjoying a childhood treat. This "positive nostalgia" has a powerful effect on how we experience food.

據名廚赫斯頓·布盧門撒爾所說,我們的口味偏好和我們的記憶有很大的關聯。某些味道可能會讓人想起在海邊度假時的聲音和氣味。又或者一個冰激凌能勾起我們童年時期的甜美回憶。這種“積極的懷舊”對我們品嘗食物有很大的影響。

Likewise, our surroundings have an impact on culinary pleasure. The same glass of wine can taste different depending on the background music. Blumenthal believes playing loud music makes people eat more quickly, while classical music makes them spend more money on wine.

同樣的,用餐環境對我們的口味偏好也有影響。同一瓶酒在不同的背景音樂里能品出不同的味道。布盧門撒爾認為播放吵鬧的音樂能讓人吃飯更快,而經典音樂卻能讓人花更多時間細細品嘗。

Alongside memory and ambience, our genetics also have a powerful impact on taste preferences. Neuroscientist Charles Zucker from Columbia University believes all animals are "pre-wired" to prefer sweet tastes over sour. "There are no lions out in the wild drinking tonic water," he says.

除了記憶和氛圍,我們的基因對我們的口味也有重要影響。哥倫比亞大學神經系統學家查爾斯·朱克爾認為所有動物都天生更偏好甜味而不是酸味。“大自然里的獅子不會去引用奎寧水。”他表示。

On a more individual level, our personal genetic inherited preferences are significant. "And that is likely to greatly impact how much sugar I want to have in my coffee," says Dr Zucker. "It might be that I need six spoons of sugar to get the same level of satisfaction and reward that you get with only two."

從個人方面而言,我們遺傳的基因也是很重要的。“這可能對我喝咖啡加多少糖有很大影響,”朱克博士表示,“可能我需要6勺糖才能調好口味,而你卻只需2勺。”

Coffee is also an interesting example of how our tastes change over time. Most children don't like the maltiness of beer or the bitterness of strong coffee. But many adults enjoy the social reward - the relaxing effects of alcohol or the stimulation gained by coffee.

咖啡在我們口味的變化史中也是一個很有趣的例子。大部分孩子不喜歡喝麥芽啤或者濃咖啡的苦味,但很多成年人卻喜歡這些——酒精帶來的放松感或是咖啡帶來的刺激感。

These are what we call acquired tastes - things we gradually learn to like - whether it's because our palates become more sophisticated, or because we crave the social effects of the foods.

這就是我們所說的后天培養的品味——我們逐步學著去喜歡的東西——不管是因為我們的口味變重了,亦或是因為我們渴求食物帶來的社會效應。

For me though, I'm yet to see the allure in oysters, whether social or epicurean!

但是對我而言,牡蠣還是沒有吸引力,不管是出于社會還是口味的原因。

 

詞匯表

grub

(俚語)吃的,食物

(to have) a sweet tooth

吃甜食的嗜好

(to be) partial (to)

偏愛

savoury

咸的

to ponder

仔細思考,衡量

to turn someone's stomach

讓人惡心

lavishly

極其大方地

slippery

滑溜溜的

to bring back

帶回來

to trigger

觸發

nostalgia

對往事的依戀

culinary

烹飪的

ambience

(地點、環境的)氣氛

tonic water

湯利水

genetic

基因的

maltiness

有麥芽的感覺

bitterness

苦味

acquired taste

后天培養的品味

palate

口味,味覺

epicurean

美食的

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