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龍魚的牙齒為什么是透明的?科學家解開這個謎團

kira86 于2019-06-14發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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龍魚是生活在深海中的一種長相可怕的魚類,它們的牙齒鋒利且透明。一直以來,它們的牙齒為什么是透明的都是一個迷,不過科學家名表示他們找到了答案。
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Solved: Dragonfish Transparent Teeth Mystery

解開龍魚透明牙齒之謎

Dragonfish live deep down in the dark ocean, and are frightening-looking creatures.

龍魚生活在深海之中,是一種長相可怕的生物。

Their sharp, transparent teeth help them survive in the hostile environment.The cause of their see-through teeth has long been a mystery.But scientists say they have an answer.

它們鋒利透明的牙齒幫助它們在惡劣的環境中生存。它們的牙齒之所以是透明的原因一直是個謎。但是科學家們說他們找到了答案。

In the near-black deep water, a substance covering the teeth prevents any light from reflecting off the teeth surface.This helps a dragonfish hide their big teeth from creatures it wants to eat.

在顏色近乎黑色的深海中,覆蓋在牙齒表面的物質可以阻擋任何光線反射到牙齒表面上。這有助于龍魚隱藏它們的大牙齒,不讓它想捕食的動物發現。

“The mouth is invisible and the prey is caught more easily,” said scientist Marc Andre Meyers of the University of California, San Diego.He led the research, which was published this month in the journal Matter.

加州大學圣地亞哥分校的科學家馬克·安德烈·邁耶斯說,它的嘴巴是隱形的,更容易抓住獵物。他主持的這項研究本月在《問題》雜志上發表。

Dragonfish have teeth similar to humans and other animals.They are made up of an outer layer of enamel, and an inner layer of hard, dense, bony tissue called dentin.But in the dragonfish, the material has been reorganized.

龍魚的牙齒與人類和其他的動物的相似。它們的牙齒由外層的牙釉質以及內層堅硬、緊密的骨組織構成,這些骨組織被稱為牙質。但在龍魚身上,這種物質發生了重組。

In the fish teeth enamel are extremely small crystals.And in the dentin, scientists found extremely small pieces of a protein called collagen.If such structures were larger, they would make light scatter.But because they are so small, light passes with ease.The teeth are also very thin.

魚的牙釉質是非常小的晶體。在牙質中,科學家們發現了一種叫做膠原質的極其微小的蛋白質片段。如果這種蛋白質片段再大一些,它們就會使光散射。但是因為它們很小,所以使光很容易穿過。而且,龍魚的牙齒也很薄。

Together, these differences prevent any light that may be in the deep water from reflecting off the tooth surface.This makes it easier for the dragonfish to hunt in the waters.

總的來說,這種與眾不同的差異可以防止深水中的光線反射到牙齒表面。這使得龍魚更容易在水中捕食。

Meyers explained that, before, scientists believed dragonfish teeth were made of another, unknown material.

邁耶斯解釋說,以前,科學家們認為龍魚的牙齒是由另一種未知的材料構成的。

“However, we discovered that they are made of the same materials as our human teeth...”

“然而,現在我們發現它們和我們人類的牙齒是由相同的材料構成的”。

And that surprised them, he said.“Same building blocks, different scales and hierarchies.Nature is amazing in its ingeniosity.”

他說,這讓他們感到驚訝。“相同的構成要素,但是卻有不同的大小和層級,于是便有不同的形態。大自然的神奇令人贊嘆。

The researchers found the fish in depths of up to 1,000 meters in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of California.

研究人員在加利福尼亞海岸外深達1000米的太平洋深海中發現了這種魚。

Dragonfish are small, long, and black.They grow to be about 25 centimeters long.In the deep water, dragonfish attract smaller fish to their big, open mouths with beard-like attachments that have a light on the end.

龍魚又小又長又黑。它們長約25厘米。在深海中,龍魚會把小魚引到它們張開的大嘴前,嘴巴上附有胡須狀的一條東西,其末端有一盞燈狀物。

The dragonfish is not the only creature with transparent teeth.Others, like the anglerfish and hatchetfish, have them, as well.While they have not been investigated yet, Meyers said, “I suspect they have a similar structure.”

龍魚并不是唯一擁有透明牙齒的生物。其他的魚類像琵琶魚和孵化魚,它們也有。邁耶斯說,雖然還沒有對它們進行調查,但我懷疑它們牙齒的構造也是這樣的。

I’m Anne Ball.

安妮·鮑爾報道。

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